Iec 62305 5 pdf free download

iec 62305 5 pdf free download

  • Free download IEC standard: Part 1 - General principles
  • (PDF) IEC PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING | Branislav Blažević - tavast.co
  • It's called tomorrow. You can't start next chapter of your life if you keep re-reading the last one. Success is the ability to go from one failure to another with no loss of enthusiasm. Only the people who dare xownload fail, will achieve big success. All glory comes from daring to begin. The poorest of all people is not the person without a cent, but the person without a dream.

    Happiness is when iwc you downlooad, what you say, and what you do are in harmony. Wear a smile and have friends; wear a scowl and have wrinkles. Strive not to be a success, but rather to be of value. Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.

    Life is a tragedy when seen in close-up, but a comedy in long-shot. Safety - Lightning system. IEC standard: Part 1 - General free. E-Coins fee :. The International Electrotechnical Commission IEC is an international standards pdf that prepares and downloac International Standards for all electrical, iec and related technologies — collectively known as "electrotechnology".

    Overview standard IEC Protection against download - Part 1: General principles: IEC provides general principles to be followed for protection of structures against lightning, including their installations and contents, as well as persons. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, 6205 inand constitutes a pdf revision.

    This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: 1 It no longer covers protection of services connected to structures. If the link fails, the document cannot be downloaded, please downkoad on the Broken link to let us know.

    To view the content doanload other pages click on the transfer page Icon. Add to collection. Such documents may concern. Click on stars iec rate. Reader Comments. Sort by new download Sort by 62305 comments Sort by likes. You need is member of groups must can comment this post. Click here to register! Search a Document. But all short stroke parameters of upward flashes are free than those of downward flashes.

    A higher long stroke charge of upward flashes is not yet confirmed. Therefore the lightning current ffee of upward flashes are considered to be covered by the maximum values given for downward flashes. A more precise evaluation of lightning current parameters and their height dependency with regard to downward and upward flashes is under xownload.

    Tableau A. Their statistical distribution can be assumed to have a logarithmic normal distribution. On this basis, the probability of 62305 of any value of each parameter can be determined.

    integral to BS EN/IEC Structure of BS EN/IEC The BS EN/IEC series consists of four parts, all of which need to be taken into consideration. These four parts are outlined below: Part 1: General principles BS EN/IEC (part 1) is an introduction to the other parts of the standard and essentially describesFile Size: 2MB. The IEC series (Parts 1 to 5), is produced in accordance with the New Publications Plan, approved by National Committees (81//RQ ()), which restructures and updates in a more simple and rational form the publications of the IEC series, the IEC • IEC (IEC version) • EN (CENELEC adopted copy of the above) • BS EN (British National Standard adoption of the above) This document focuses upon the IEC/EN standards and, for a specific design, the applicable national standards should be referred to in order to ascertain if differences exist.

    downlod polarity ratio is a function of the territory. If no local information is available, the ratio given herein should be used. Table A. Figure A. A partir de la Figure A. NOTE The value of lightning parameters is usually obtained from measurement taken on tall objects. Statistical distribution of estimated lightning current peak values that does not consider the effect of tall objects is also available from lightning location systems.

    This shall be taken into account in establishing test procedures. From Figure Pdf. The geometrical boundary of areas which are protected against direct lightning flashes can be determined using the rolling sphere method. Following the electro-geometric model, the rolling sphere radius r final jump distance is correlated with the peak value of the first short stroke current.

    For a given rolling sphere radius r it can be assumed that all flashes with peak values higher than the corresponding minimum peak value I will be intercepted by natural or dedicated air terminations. Therefore, the probability for the peak pdd of negative iec positive first strokes from Figure A. Tableau B. For the current waveshapes of the first short stroke and the subsequent short strokes for different LPL, the parameters given in Table B.

    The analytic curves are shown 62305 Figures B. Table B. From the analytic curves, the amplitude downlod of the lightning current Figure B. When testing individual protection measure components, this must be taken into account by choosing appropriate test parameters for each component.

    To this end, a system analysis has to 62305 performed. This generator may be used to simulate the specific energy of the first short stroke combined with the charge of the long stroke. The tests may be used to assess mechanical integrity, freedom from downlod heating and melting effects. These parameters shall be obtained in the same frse. The test parameters relevant for free simulation of the long stroke charge Q l and duration T are pdf in Table C.

    Depending on the test item and the expected damage mechanisms, the tests for the first short stroke or the long stroke can be applied singly or pdf a combined test, where the long stroke follows the first short stroke immediately. Tests for arc melting should be performed using both polarities.

    Figure C. The test parameters relevant for the simulation of this current steepness are given in Table C. Example test generators are shown in Figures C. The simulation can be eownload for a short first stroke and a subsequent short stroke. Tableau C. The tail of the current has no influence pdf this kind of simulation. The simulation according to Clause C.

    For further information on test parameters simulating the effects of lightning on LPS components, see Annex D. Table C. Le Tableau D. This annex covers all the components of an LPS subjected to all or a major part of the lightning current and shall be used in conjunction with the standards iec the requirements and the tests for each specific component.

    NOTE Parameters relevant to system aspects e. Each parameter tends to dominate a different failure mechanism, download analysed pff detail below. The current parameters to be considered for tests are combinations of these values, selected to represent in laboratory the actual failure mechanism of the part of the LPS being tested.

    The criteria for the selection of the outstanding quantities are given in Clause D. Table D. In fact, the current flows to earth through more than one path, as several down conductors and natural conductors are free present in an external LPS. Additionally, different services normally enter the protected structure water and gas pipes, power and iec lines etc.

    For the determination of the parameters of the actual current flowing in specific components of an fee the sharing of the current has to be taken into account. Preferably, current amplitude and waveshape through a component at a specific location of the LPS should be evaluated.

    Where an individual evaluation is not possible, the current parameters may be assessed by means of the download procedures. This factor provides an estimate of pdt share of the lightning current flowing in down conductors of the external LPS under worst-case conditions. The above-described approach is applicable for the evaluation of the peak value of the current flowing in one particular path to earth.

    Thermal effects are also relevant to the heat generated in the root of the arcs at the attachment point and in all the isolated parts of an LPS involved in arc development e. The 62305 cross-sectional area of conductors must be sufficient to prevent overheating of the conductors to a level that would present a fire hazard to the surroundings.

    Despite the thermal aspects discussed in D. The evaluation of conductor heating due to lightning current flow is sometimes necessary when problems can arise because of the risk of personal injury and of fire or explosion damages. Guidance is given below to evaluate the temperature rise of conductors subjected download the flow of a lightning current.

    The phenomenon is therefore to be considered adiabatic. Tableau D. Characteristic values of the physical parameters reported in Equation D. Under these circumstances, the skin effect should also be taken into consideration. However, in most of the pff cases linked with LPS components, the material characteristics dynamic magnetic permeability of the LPS conductor and the geometrical configurations cross-sectional area of the LPS conductor reduce the contribution of the skin effect in the temperature rise of the conductor to negligible levels.

    The component of the lightning flash most relevant to this heating mechanism is the first return stroke. Material melting and erosion can occur at the attachment point. In fact, in the arc root area there is a large thermal input from the arc root itself, as well as a concentration of ohmic heating due to the high current densities.

    Most of the thermal energy is generated at or very close to the surface of the metal. 62305 heat generated in the immediate root area is in excess of that which can be absorbed into the metal by conduction and the excess is irradiated or lost in melting or vaporizing of metal. The severity of the process is linked to the current amplitude and to the duration.

    For sake of simplicity, this standard will report only the anode-or-cathode voltage drop downloxd. The application of this model is particularly effective for thin metal skins. In all cases, it free conservative results as it postulates that all the energy injected in the lightning attachment point is used to melt or vaporize conductor material, neglecting the heat diffusion within the metal.

    Other models introduce the dependence of the lightning attachment point damage on the duration of the current impulse. The uec voltage drop u a,c has a value of a few tens of volts. A simplified approach assumes that all of the energy developed at the arc root is used only for melting.

    Equation D. Basically, the charge to be considered is the sum of the charge of the return stroke and the lightning continuing current.

    Laboratory experience has revealed that the effects of the return stroke charge are of minor importance when compared to the effects of the continuing current. Mechanical effects also depend on the friction forces acting between parts of the LPS free contact with one another, where relevant. When a current flows through a download, the amplitude of the electrodynamic forces developed at the various positions pdf the free depend on both the amplitude of the lightning current and the geometrical configuration of the circuit.

    The mechanical effect of these forces, however, depends not only on their amplitude but also on the general form of the current, duration, as well as on the geometrical configuration of the installation. The diagram of the stresses for this configuration is reported in Figure D. The axial force on the horizontal conductor tends to pull the conductor out of the clamp.

    The numerical value of the force along the horizontal conductor, considering a peak current value of kA and a length of a pdf conductor of 0,5 m, is shown in Figure D. Figure D. The natural mechanical frequency linked 62305 the elastic behaviour of the LPS structure and the permanent deformation of the LPS structure linked with its plastic behaviour are the most important parameters.

    Moreover, in many cases the effect of the friction forces within the structure are also of significant importance. The amplitude of the vibrations of the elastic LPS structure, caused by an electrodynamic force developed by the lightning current, can be evaluated by means of second order differential equations; the key factor being the ratio between the duration of the current impulse and the period of natural mechanical oscillation of the LPS structure.

    The typical condition encountered in LPS applications consists of natural oscillation periods of the structure much longer than that of the applied force duration iec the lightning current impulse. In this case the maximum mechanical stress occurs after the cessation of the current impulse and has a peak value that remains lower than that of the download force.

    In most cases, maximum mechanical stress can be neglected. If the material iec the LPS structure is soft, for example aluminum or annealed copper, the electrodynamic forces can deform the conductors in corners and loops. LPS components should therefore be designed to withstand these forces and to show essentially an elastic 62305. The total mechanical stress applied to the LPS structure depends on the time integral of the applied force and therefore on the specific energy associated with the current impulse.

    It also depends on the waveshape of the current impulse and its duration compared with the period of natural oscillation of the structure. All these influencing parameters must therefore be taken into account during testing.

    iec 62305 5 pdf free download

    The severity of the shock dpf dependent upon the peak jec value and the rate of rise of the current. In general, the damage due to the acoustic shock wave is insignificant on metal parts of the LPS, but can cause damage to surrounding items. If the heating of the material of the components rods, clamps, etc.

    In extreme cases, the conductor could explosively fuse and cause considerable damage to surrounding structure. If the cross-section of the metal is sufficient to safely handle the overall action, only mechanical integrity need be checked.

    Two different types of sparking can occur, i. Thermal sparking occurs when a very high current is forced to cross a joint between two pvf materials. Most thermal sparking occur near the edges inside a joint if the interface pressure is too low; due primarily to high current density and inadequate interface pressure.

    The intensity of the thermal sparking is linked to the specific energy and therefore, the most critical phase of the lightning is the first return stroke.

    Free download IEC standard: Part 1 - General principles

    Voltage sparking occurs download the current is forced to take convoluted paths, e. The induced voltage is proportional to the self inductance multiplied by the steepness 623005 the lightning current. The most critical lightning component for voltage sparking is therefore the subsequent negative stroke.

    The nature of the components and the specific stresses to which they are subjected, requires special consideration when setting up laboratory tests to check their performance. For arc erosion effects, two main test parameters should be considered: i. The charge governs the energy input at the arc root. In particular, long duration strokes appear to be the most severe for this effect whilst short duration strokes can be neglected.

    The duration of the current iec an important role in the heat transfer phenomena into the material. The duration of the current applied during 62305 tests shall be comparable to those of long duration strokes 0,5 s to 1 s. In most cases these two effects act independently downloac each other and separate laboratory tests can be carried out to check each effect.

    This approach can be adopted in all cases in which the heating developed by the lightning current flow does not modify substantially the mechanical characteristics. The main results in terms pdf plots and formulae are summarized in D. No free test is therefore necessary, in general, to check the behaviour of a conductor with respect to temperature rise.

    (PDF) IEC PROTECTION AGAINST LIGHTNING | Branislav Blažević - tavast.co

    In all cases for which a laboratory test is required, the following considerations shall be taken into account. The main test parameters to be considered in this case are the specific energy and the impulse current duration. The specific energy governs the temperature rise due to the Joule heating caused by the flow of the lightning current.

    Numerical values to be considered are those relevant to the first stroke. Conservative data are obtained by considering positive strokes. In most cases the duration of the impulse current is so iec that the heating process can be considered adiabatic. The force is 62305 to the product of the currents flowing in the conductors or to the square of the current if a single bent conductor is considered and is linked with the inverse of the distance between the conductors.

    The usual situation in which a visible effect can occur is when a conductor forms a loop or is bent. When such a conductor carries the lightning current, it will be subjected to a mechanical force which tries to extend the loop and to straighten the download and thus to bend it outward. The magnitude of this force is proportional to the square of the current amplitude.

    A clear distinction should be made, however, between the electrodynamic force, which is proportional to the square of the current amplitude, and the corresponding stress dependent on the elastic characteristics of the mechanical LPS structure. For LPS structures of relatively low natural frequencies, the stress developed within the LPS structure would be considerably lower than the electrodynamic force.

    In this case, no laboratory test is necessary to check the mechanical behaviour of a conductor bent at a right-angle pdf long as free cross-sectional areas of the present standard requirements are fulfilled.

    In all cases for which a laboratory test is required especially for soft materialsthe following download shall be taken into account. Three parameters of the first return stroke are to be considered: the duration, the specific energy of the impulse current and, in the case of rigid systems, the amplitude of the current.

    The duration of the impulse current, compared with the period of 62305 natural mechanical oscillation of the LPS structure, governs the type of mechanical response of the system in terms of displacement: — If the duration of the impulse is much shorter than the period of natural mechanical oscillation of the LPS structure normal case for LPS structures stressed by lightning impulsesthe mass and elasticity of the system prevents it from being displaced appreciably and the relevant free stress is essentially related to the pdf energy of the current impulse.

    The peak value of the impulse current has a limited effect. In this case, the peak value of the current impulse and its specific energy needs to be reproduced during the test. The specific energy of the impulse current iec the stress causing the elastic and plastic deformation of the LPS structure. The maximum values of the impulse current govern the length of the maximum displacement of the LPS structure, in case of rigid systems, having high natural oscillation frequencies.

    The development of arcs at the points of contact of the different parts is possible. Moreover, the heating effect caused by the concentration of current over small contact surfaces has a notable effect. Laboratory tests have shown that it is difficult to separate each effect from one another as a complex synergism takes place.

    Mechanical strength is affected by local melting of the area of contact. Relative displacements between parts of the connection components promote the development of arcs and the consequential intense heat generation. In the absence pddf a valid model, laboratory tests should be conducted in such a way as to represent as closely as possible the appropriate parameters of the lightning current in the most critical situation: i.

    The IEC series (Parts 1 to 5), is produced in accordance with the New Publications Plan, approved by National Committees (81//RQ ()), which restructures and updates in a more simple and rational form the publications of the IEC series, the IEC • IEC (IEC version) • EN (CENELEC adopted copy of the above) • BS EN (British National Standard adoption of the above) This document focuses upon the IEC/EN standards and, for a specific design, the applicable national standards should be referred to in order to ascertain if differences exist. integral to BS EN/IEC Structure of BS EN/IEC The BS EN/IEC series consists of four parts, all of which need to be taken into consideration. These four parts are outlined below: Part 1: General principles BS EN/IEC (part 1) is an introduction to the other parts of the standard and essentially describesFile Size: 2MB.

    Three parameters are to be considered pdr this case: the peak value, the specific energy and the duration of the impulse current. The maximum values of the impulse current governs the maximum force, or, if and after the electrodynamic pulling force exceeds the friction force, the length pef the maximum displacement of the LPS structure. The specific energy of the current impulse governs the heating at contact surfaces where the current is concentrated over small areas.

    The duration of the impulse current governs the maximum displacement of the structure after friction forces are exceeded and has an important role in the heat transfer phenomena into the material. In practical cases, erosion of the earth electrode iec the arc root is of minor importance.

    It is, free, to be considered that, contrary to air terminations, a typical LPS has several earth terminations. The lightning current will be shared between several earthing electrodes, thus causing less important effects at the arc root. Two main test parameters are to be considered in this case: the charge and duration of the download duration impulse current.

    In particular, the contribution of the first stroke pdf be neglected since long duration strokes appear to be the most severe for this component. The duration of the current impulse has an important role in the heat transfer phenomena into the material. The duration of the current impulses applied during the tests shall be comparable to those of long duration strokes 0,5 s to 1s.

    It is extremely difficult to investigate separately these effects, as both are linked with the main lightning current parameters by means of complex relationships. For spark gaps, laboratory tests shall be conducted in such a way as to represent as closely as possible the appropriate parameters of the lightning current in the most critical situation: i.

    Five parameters shall be considered in this case: the peak value, the charge, the duration, the specific energy and the rate of rise of the impulse 62305. The current peak value governs the severity of the shockwave. The charge governs the energy input in the arc.

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